Washington Wine Region - The Wine Trails of Washington State
Located on the same latitude as two of the great French winemaking regions of Bordeaux and Burgundy lies the
Washington wine region, sometimes referred to as the wine trails of Washington State. Although not as well known,
as it’s French counterparts, the vineyards of Washington unexpectedly came to prominence in the 1960’s as a new
At first glance, it would appear that Washington would be a less than ideal climate for grapes, especially at
the end of the ripening season when the area often experiences cold and sometimes rainy falls and winters. However,
because of their northerly latitude, those vineyards benefit from up to two more hours of sunlight per day during
the growing season than does Northern California. In addition, rainfall east of the Cascade Mountains is modest,
averaging less than ten inches per year. Low precipitation and humidity help minimize mildew and diseases ruinous
to vines and their fruit.
The climate in Washington's wine-grape growing sub-regions varies substantially from the mild Puget Sound to the
scorching Tri-Cities where summertime temperatures often hover above 100F (23.5C) The former, though, doesn't enjoy
the 'rain shadow' effect created by the Cascades and only 1% of the state's output is achieved there.
The remaining 99% east of the Cascades grows in seven of the state's eight official appellations, among which
are Yakima, Walla Walla and the Columbia Gorge.
First planted in 1825 by French, German and Italian immigrants the region languished for over a century and a
half. But commercial production ramped up in the mid-1980s to the point that its production is now second only to
California's, harvesting 116,760 tons on over 30,000 acres. Combined, the Washington wine region produces
16.5 million gallons per year.
The growers here had to develop new techniques to support the fruit in the near-desert conditions of eastern
Washington. And adapt they did, with eye-dropper irrigation which gives the vines just enough water to stay
healthy, but not enough to pump up the grapes and dilute their flavor. Fortunately, the Snake, Columbia and Yakima
rivers provide ample water through an extensive natural aqueduct system.
Some winters their efforts are challenged when the cold of the Columbia Valley sends vines dormant. The growers
respond by planting vines on their own roots rather rootstock, which allows it to produce a crop the following
They benefit from nature as well, though. Thanks to geologic developments in the Pasco Basin, large deposits of
silt and sandy loam help produce the drainage essential to proper wine grape growing.
All the traditional varietals grow here, including Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, Syrah and Sangiovese reds. Whites
also cover the bases with Chardonnay, Riesling and Sauvignon Blanc in abundance. The whites in the region yield 30%
more tonnage per acre than reds, with Riesling leading the pack at 6.2.
The Merlot produced in the Columbia Valley stands out, thanks to the more 50-degree temperature swing from the
90-degree days to the 40-45 degree nights. Those hot days ensure that grapes ripen slowly without producing
excessive sugar, while the cool nights help produce abundant acidity.
Thanks to their creativity and hard work, the industry is now a $2.4 billion powerhouse employing more than
11,000 people at more than 360 wineries, up from a bare 19 in 1981 and still growing.